Geography Of Gujarat
Rivers of Gujarat
• 185 rivers drains Gujarat. This rivers are broadly divided in rivers of Kutchh, Saurashtra and Talgujarat.
• 97 rivers flows through Kutchh. 71 flows through Saurashtra and 17 flows through Talgujarat. Thus as per numbers Kutchh has the highest no of rivers. But as per water quantity, Talgujarat has the highest quantity. 4 rivers of Talgujarat, namely Narmada, Tapi, Mahi and Sabarmati contains 70% of total irrigation potential of Gujarat.
• Narmada: This river is known as lifeline of Gujarat. It emerges from Mt Amarkantak in MP located in Maikala mountain range and flows westwards. It enters Gujarat from Hanfeshwar in Chhota Udaipur district. Total length is 1312km whereas length in Gujarat is 160km. It flows through tectonic or rift valley. Dhuvadhar, Kapildhara and Sahastradhara are most important waterfall on the river. It creates Aliyabet, which is the largest riverine island in Gujarat.
• Maheshwar dam in MP is the first private sector dam in India generating 500MW of electricity. Sardar Sarovar project in Narmada District is 1450MW of electricity. Six units of 200mw each in riverbed and five units of 50MW generating each in canal section.
Tributaries of Narmada
• Karjan is imp. Emerges from Rajpipla mountains. After flowing from Rajpipla n Nandod meets Narmada nr Rundh.
• Orsang emerges from Chhota Udaipur district meets Narmada at Vyas. Unchh n Hiran are tributaries of Orsang.
• Besides Kaveri, Amravati n Bhukhi are imp tributaries of Narmada.
Sardar Sarovar Yojana
Jawaharlal Nehru laid foundation stone on 5 April 61. Original plan was for 163m. Narmada tribunal was created in 69. In 78 tribunal resolved water dispute. Construction commenced. World bank sanctioned loan of Rs 500 crore. WB constituted ‘Mors Committee’ after environment protest.. On committee recommendation WB withdrew the loan. Sardar Sarovar Nigam was created in 88. CM Chimanbhai Patel issued Narmada Bond. His Samadhi is known as Narmada Ghat. Gujarat enjoys 16 per cent share in electricity, water and expense distribution.
• TAPI river emerges from betul mountain in MP goes to MH and enters Gujarat from HARANFAL in Tapi district. Length of river is 752km. Out of this 224km in Gujarat. It flows from rift valley.
• BANAS river emerges from Sirnava mountain in Udaipur in dist. Shirohi and goes in L. Rann of Kutchh. Longest river of N. Gujarat. Sipu n Balaram are its tributaries. Dantivada dam is irrigation project.
• SARASWATI river emerges from Chori mountain in Danta taluka and meets L. Rann of Kutchh. Mukteshwar dam in BK district is irrigation project.
• SABARMATI: This river emerges from Dhebar lake near Vekariya in Rajasthan. It enters Gujarat passes from north & central Gujarat. 7 tributaries meet this river. Sabarmati, Meshwo, Mazam, Vatrak, Hathmati, Shedhi, Khari. Meshwo, Vatrak n Mazam emerges from Dungarpur in Rajasthan. Mazam meets Vatrak near Kapadvanj. Meshwo meets Vatrak in Samatra village in Mehmadabad. Hathmati emerges from Himmatnagar and meets Sabar nr Prantij from where it is known as Sabarmati. It meets Arabian sea near Vautha village in Ahmedabad district which is known as Kopali ni Khadi.
• Its total length is 421km and 321km in Gujarat. Longest river in Gujarat.It flows from SK, BK, Mehsana, Kheda, Ah, Gandhinagar, Anand district respectively. At Ukai (Kheralu taluq of Mehsana district) a dam is created which is providing irrigation facility.
• MAHI: This river emerges from Anzera in MP. It emerges from Mehad lake. It goes to Vansvada district in Rajasthan and enters Gujarat. Anas, Panam, Misri & Galti are its important tributaries. It meets ocean at a place called Vaherakhadi. When it meets ocean its mouth is one km broad. So it is called Mahisagar. Total length is 500km, 180km in Gujarat. 2 projects are created on the river. In Kadana: Dist. Mahisagar, a dam is created from which irrigation and hydroelectricity is derived. Hydroelectricity potential is 240MW. Besides Kadana, a irrigation project is created at Vanakbori in Kheda district.
• Raskaviyar pariyojana is connected to R. Mahi as irrigation project through canal. Under Sujalam Sufalam yojana water of this river is transferred to ‘Pariej Pond’ which irrigates many areas.
• VISHWAMITRI emerges from Pavagadh n meets R. Dhadhar @ Pingalwad in T. Karjan after flowing from Vadodara.
• KIM emerges from Rajpipla mountain n meets Gulf of Khambhat.
• PURNA or Piyoshini arises from Pimpalner mountain n flows from Navsari.
• AMBIKA arises from D. Dang n Vansada mountains. R. Kaveri n R. Kharera are imp. Tributaries. R. Kaveri arises from Vansada n R Kharera arises from Dharampur. Both meets ambika nr Bilimora.
• AURANGA arises from Dharampur. Valsad city is developed on its bank.
• KOLAK arises from Saputara n meets Arabian Sea. Udwada is located on its bank. Kalu fish is found in this river.
• DAMAN GANGA arises from W. Ghats n meets Arabian sea. It is known as Pinkish Red due to pollution
Imp Minerals of Gujarat
• Flourspar: Available from Ambadungar, Dunggargam, Nauti tekri in Chhota Udaipur district. At Kadipani, a plant to clean CaF2 is located. With daily capacity of 500T, its unique in Asia.
• Akik: Produced from Bharuch and Narmada district. At Khambhat the industry is developed.
• Bauxite: Mainly from Kutchchh and Jamnagar. Port Okha expertises in mine export of Bauxite
• Chuna no Patthar: It contains CaCO3 and MgCO3. If calcium carbonate is more it is called Dolomite if Magnesium Carbonate is more it is called Lime Stone. Porbandar Patthar is used for various type of artwork on stone like sculpture. Gujarat produces 20 per cent of Dolomite of the nation.
• China Clay: Mainly produced from SK. Aarsodiya field ranks first in the nation. In Saurashtra Sayla in Surendranagar district has large deposits.
• Fire Clay: It is available from Muli taluq of Surendranagar District.
• Multani Clay: Highest in Lakhanka, Bhavnagar.
• Gypsum: It is found from Kutchchh, Devbhumi Dvarka and Jamnagar. Highest in Devbhumi Dvarka. ‘Satapar’ is an important field in Jamnagar.
• Graphite: Highest production from Jambughoda of Panchmahal.
• Lead, Copper n Zink: Danta in BK
• Sangemarmar: Ambaji in BK
• Lignite: Highest in Panandhro Kutchchh. Besides Bhuri in Bharuch n Visnagar in Mehsana.
• Crude Oil: First found from Lunej in Anand in 1958. Ankaleshwar is the largest in Gujarat. Besides Gandhar field in Bharuch distict has larger assets of Crude oil than Ankaleshwar. India’s first shale gas well is dug at Jambusar in Bharuch. India’s only state to have 2 LNG terminals: one at Dahej and the other at Hazira.
• Largest solar park of Asia is under construction at Charanka in Patan District with 590MW. It will come up with warm support from Clinton Foundation. It also has capacity of 100MW wind power. So it will be world’s largest solar wind hybrid complex.
• G’nagar is declared model solar city with five megawatt grid generated solar rooftop projects.
• Guj. Has initiated world’s first canal based solar power project at Mehsana.
• State possess 2nd largest wind power installed capacity with 3352MW.
• State contributes 15% of India’s renewable energy basket.
• Gandhinagar is one of the most greenest capital cities in Asia.
• Guj. Is the first is Asia and 4th province of the world to have dept of climate change.
• First state in India to enter into Carbon Trading Agreement with world bank.
SOILS IN GUJARAT
• ALLUVIAL SOIL : It is most prominent in Ganga basin. It is used for cultivation of cereals & pulses. It is also used for cotton, sugarcane & jute.
• BLACK SOIL : It is also known as black cotton soil. It is 30% of the country. It is also known as REGUR.
• DESERT SOIL: It is found in desert areas. Good minerals but due to lack of water soil formation is weak. So not good for Agriculture.
• LATERITE SOIL : It is present where rainfall is very high, nearly 200 cm to 250 cm. It is rich in Iron oxide & Aluminium.
• ARID SOIL : It is present in Rajasthan. It is alkaline in nature. It is used for cultivation of Bajra, Jowar, Ragi & Oilseeds.
• SALINE SOIL: It is seen in the coastal areas. It is not good for agriculture, but if enough water is given it is useful for agriculture.
• FOREST SOIL : It is seen in the forest area.
Local Soils of Gujrat
• KYARI NI JAMIN: in Anand & Kheda. Useful for Paddy cultivation.
• BESAR SOIL: tobacco cultivation. It is a alluvial soil made by wind. Available in Kheda & Anand
• DHAR NI JAMIN: seen is Surashtra. Groundnut cultivation.
• RABI : This season is present between October to March. It is used to grow Wheat, pulses.
• KHARIF : It is considered between June to October. Rice, Bajra, Jowar, Cotton is grown in this season.
• ZAID : It is a small season for growing fruits. Its time period is between Sept- Dec & March- June.
• Irrigation Development Total irrigated area: 58.3% Highest irrigation in District Mehsana lowest in Dang.
• Gujarat consumes 47% ground water and 31% surface water for irrigation.
• Three basic sources of irrigation: Well, Pond, Canal.
• First well was dug during Gayakwad era in Mehsana district. Highest wells by no: Junagarh. Highest irrigated area by well: Mehsana. Highest borewll Snagar
• Highest irrigation by canal in Surat District. Hathmati Kharikat canal was the first canal in Gujarat.
• Pond irrigation up to some level is practiced in Kheda and Anand.
• Highest by well followed by canal and pond respectively.
1. Food Crops Bajra: Highest production among food crops. BK tops the list.
2. Wheat: Ahmedabad district is on the top. Bhal region is known for best productivity.
3. Paddy: Produced in Kheda and Anand.
4. Maize: Panchmahal tops the list besides Dahod also produces.
• Cotton: Largest production in Surendranagar but top quality in Kanam region.
• Groundnut: Highest production in India. Largest area under cultivation in Rajkot District and Highest production in Junagarh district.
• Tobbaco: It is cultivated in Besar soil of Charotar in Madhya Gujarat.
• Sugarcane: highest in Surat following Valsad, Navsari, Tapi
• Cumin seeds or Jiru/ Fennel or Variyali/ Isabgol or Psyllium Husk: From Unjha. Besides Unjha is also have largest Ganj market in Asia.
• Castor or Aeranda: Gujarat is the largest producer with 80 per cent in India.
• Onion: Bhavnagar is the largest producer. Gujarat produces 15.5% onion of the world.
• Potato: Highest in BK
• Mango: Highest in Valsad, Hafus mango. N Junagarh is second with Kesar Mango
• Gujarat produces 21% of Sesame of the country. Gir Kesar mango is only 2nd mango variety in India to get GI tag.
• Mochha village in Porbandar is declared Biovillage.
• Different variety of Dutch roses grown in green houses in Tapi, Surat and Navsari district reach the market in Tokyo, Dubai and European countries via Amsterdam every week.